Volume - III / CHAPTER - 2 / LESSON NO: 13
OF TA-YAMMUM (DRY ABLUTION)
Q 1. What is Ta-yammum?
A. Doing "Masah" of the face and hands with the clean clod in a specified way to purify oneself from invisible impurity is called Ta-yammum (dry ablution).
Q 2: Who should perform Ta-yammum?
A. He should perform Ta-yammum (dry ablution) who owes Wudu or Ghusl but can not attain to the water despite striving hard.
Q 3: In what condition is one helpless to attain to or use the
A. There are several conditions in which one is helpless either to use or attain to the water:
1. One is sure that his sickness will aggravate if he uses water for Wudu or Ghusl,
2. Water is not available within the radius of one mile (1.6 km).
3. Chilling cold may cause death or serious sickness.
4. Fear of being seen and killed by enemy or will be looted or any animal or beast will attack or kill or chastity will be outraged.
5. There is no can and rope to draw the water from well which is located in jungle.
6. One has water but fears that he or his fellow or his animals will face thirst if the water is used for Wudu or Ghusl and that water is not available in the area he is travelling.
7. Water is available but sold at exorbitant price which one can not afford.
8. Fear of missing caravan or train if one tries to search for the water.
9. One is sure to miss Eid prayer if he performs Wudu or Ghusl.
10. One fears (excepting guardian) to miss funeral prayer i.e. all four Takbeers if he performs Wudu or Ghusl.
In all these conditions and circumstances the performance of Ta-yammum is lawful.
Q 4: What is meant by "one is sure that his sickness will aggravate or prolong if he uses water"?
A. He should have experienced himself that use of water for Wudu or Ghusl has either aggravated or prolonged his sickness or any reliable Muslim physician (who should not be Faasiq [transgressor]) advises to perform Ta-yammum instead of Wudu or Ghusl. Mere apprehension or an advice by any non-Muslim or Faasiq physician is not lawful for Ta-yammum.
Q 5: How many obligatory acts (Fard) are there in Ta-yammum?
A. There are three obligatory acts (Fard) in Ta-yammum: (1). Intention: If one strikes his hands on the pure earth and rub them on the face and hands without making "Niyah"(intention) his Ta-yammum will not be in order. (2). Passing the hands over the whole face in such a way that no spot remains untouched. (3). Doing "Masah" of both the hands upto elbows. No spot should remain untouched otherwise Ta-yammum will not be valid.
Q 6: What are the Sunnat acts in Ta-yammum?
A. The Sunnat acts in Ta-yammum are: (1). To recite Bismillah.(2). To strike both the hands on pure earth lightly. (3).To keep fingers apart from one another. (4). To strike the hands against each other to shake off the excess dust. (5). To do "Masah" first of the face then of the hands. (6). To do "Masah" of the face and hands in succession. (7). To do "Masah" first of the right hand and then of the left. (8). To pass fingers through the beard and (9)."Khilaal" of fingers: to run the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other. If dust does not reach the spaces between the fingers, then "Khilaal" is Fard (obligatory).
Q 7: What is the method of Ta-yammum?
A. The method of performing Ta-yammum is that one should strike his hands with the fingers out-stretched and wide open, lightly on anything of the earth's genre, shake off the excess dust and wipe the whole face with them and then strike the hands on the earthen object again and rub the palms on the hands alternately from the tips (nails) of the fingers to the elbows.
Q 8: How to do "Masah" of the hands?
A. The method of doing "Masah" of the hands is that one should run four fingers (except thumb) of his left hand on the outer side of the right hand from the tips of the fingers upto the elbow and then rub the palm on the inner side of the right hand from the elbow down to the wrist-joint. Pass the thumb of the left hand on the upper side of the right hand's thumb. Deal with the left hand in the same manner.
Q 9: With which things the performance of Ta-yammum is
A. Ta-yammum is lawful with the things which are of the genre of the earth. Such things neither burn to ashes nor melt and nor soften like sand, lime, antimony (collyrium), arsenic, sulpher, red ochre, stone, salt which is obtained from mines and jewels like emerald, carnelian etc.
Q10: With which things is Ta-yammum unlawful?
A. Ta-yammum is not lawful with the things which burn to ashes like wood, grass etc.or which melt or soften like silver, gold, copper, brass and iron etc.
Q11: Is Ta-yammum lawful with the wood which has dust thereon?
A. Ta-yammum is lawful with wood, grass, lead, gold, silver and iron etc. provided they have so much dust thereon that it sticks to the hands when one strikes on them.
Q12: What is the difference between the Ta-yammum of Wudu and Ghusl?
A. Ta-yammum is the same for Wudu and Ghusl.
Q13: With which Ta-yammum is prayer lawful?
A. Prayer will be in order with that Ta-yammum which is performed for (with the intention of)prayer or purifying oneself or for such worship that can not be done without Tahaarah (purification). Prayer can not be offered with the Ta-yammum which is performed for entering or coming out of mosque or touching the Holy Qur-aan or uttering Azaan (call to prayer) or visiting grave or burying the dead. Only that worship or work can be done with the Ta-yammum for which it is performed. Besides, the practical demonstration of the method of Ta-yammum to others will also not enable the demonstrator to offer prayer with the Ta-yammum he demonstrated for education purpose.
Q14: Is prayer lawful with the Ta-yammum done for funeral prayer or Sajda-e-Tilaawat (to prostrate for the verse of prostration)?
A. If Ta-yammum is performed for funeral prayer or Eid prayer due to serious sickness or non-availability of water, the obligatory prayer and other worships can be offered with the said Ta-yammum. In such conditions, the obligatory prayers can be offered even with the Ta-yammum done for Sajda-e-Tilaawat.
Q15: Will prayer be in order if one offers with Ta-yammum without searching for the water?
A. There are two conditions in this regard i.e. (1) If one has an idea that the water is available within the radius of one mile (1.6 km), he should search for it otherwise Ta-yammum will not be lawful. (2) If one is sure that the water is not available within the radius of one mile (1.6 km) then he should not search for it provided there is none from which he could enquire about the water. In case, somebody was there who knew about the availability of water nearby but he did not ask of him then he will have to repeat his prayer after performing Wudu.
Q16: Can many prayers be offered with one Ta-yammum?
A. Yes, Ta-yammum to us is the substitute of Wudu and Ghusl so we can offer many obligatory and optional prayers with one Ta-yammum as we do with one Wudu or Ghusl.
Q17: Can several persons perform Ta-yammum with one clod of the earth or can one person do several times with the same clod?
A. Earth does not fall within the parameter of rules meant for the water, hence several persons can or one person can use the same clod of the earth several times for Ta-yammum.
Q18: Which things make Ta-yammum void?
A. Ta-yammum is nullified by the things which render Wudu void or make Ghusl obligatory. Besides, attainment to the water or physical fitness to use the water also render Ta-yammum void. For example, one performed Ta-yammum for Ghusl being seriously ill but afterwards he recovers and now he is fit to use water, then he will have to do Ghusl as his Ta-yammum has gone void.
Q19: How long can one keep performing Ta-yammum?
A. One can keep doing Ta-yammum unless the water is available or the disability is removed. No matter if one has to practise it for years under compulsion.
Q20: Is Ta-yammum lawful for one whom the cold water harms but the hot water suits him?
A. If the cold water harms one in sickness and the hot water does not, then he should use hot water. Ta-yammum is not lawful for him. However, he can do Ta-yammum if he is at such a place where the water is not available.
In case,Wudu or Ghusl harms one in the cold climate but does not harm in hot climate then he should perform Ta-yammum in the cold climate and when it turns hot (feasible to him) he should do Ghusl or Wudu as the case may be. If water harms the head he should begin Ghusl from the neck (throat) downwards and do "Masah" of the head i.e. pass the fingers of both the hands over it.
Q 21: Is Ta-yammum lawful for one who is in possession of "Zam Zam" water?
A. Ta-yammum is not lawful for the one who is in possession of a sufficient quantity of Zam Zam (water of sacred well adjacent to Holy Ka'bah) with which he can perform Wudu. No matter if he is taking it as a gift or for a patient.