Volume - IV / CHAPTER - 1 / LESSON NO: 8 / PAGE 1 OF 2
TERMINOLOGY OF SHARI'AH'S COMMANDS
Q 1. What does "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" mean?
A. A specified meaning of any word taken by "Shari'ah" is called "Istilaah-e-Shar'i" (technical term of Shariah).
Q 2. How many commands of Shariah are there?
A. The commands of Shariah are of two kinds i.e. "Amr" (command, enjoining good) and "Nahi" (prohibition, forbidding evil). The first kind of Shariah's commands is called "Maamooraat" (commanded duties) and the second kind is called "Manhiyaat" or "Mamnoo'aat" (prohibited things). "Amr-o-Nahi" (commands and prohibitions) are eleven. Of these five are "Amr"(commanded duties, acts) i.e. "Fard" [Farz] (obligatory act), "Waajib" (essential act), "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"(emphasised Sunnah), "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" (non-emphasised Sunnah) and "Mustahab" (desirable, commendable act), five ones are "Nahi" (forbidden acts, things) i.e. the worst of these is "Haraam" (unlawful) act and then are "Makrooh Tahreemi" (odious to the extent of being forbidden), "Isaa'at" (bad but less than odious), "Makrooh Tanzihi" (undesirable) and "Khilaaf-e-Ola" (those things, acts which are against Sunnah, decency) and the last (eleventh) one is "Mubah" (neither lawful nor unlawful).
Q 3. How many kinds of obligatory acts are there and what is the definition of each of them?
A. There are two kinds of "Fard" (obligatory acts) i.e. "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" (definite obligatory act) and "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled). "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" is that command of Shariah which is proved by the definite arguement,reason beyond any doubt. Its denier is, according to Hanafi scholars, an absolute infidel. There is "Ijma" (consensus of Muslim scholars) that the one who denies any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" whose obligation is commonly known and manifested by the Islaamic faith, is not only himself an infidel but also he who doubts about the infidelity of the denier.
In short, the one who abandons any "Fard-e-E'tiqaadi" like Salaat, Rukoo, Sujood (prayer, bowing, prostration), unless permitted by Shariah, is "Faasiq" (disobedient, transgressor), committer of major sin and deserves the torment of hell. "Fard-e-'Amali" (indefinite obligatory act but to be fulfilled) is that command of Shariah which is not proved by any definite argument,reason but it is "obligatory" in view of the consensus of "Mujtahids" (Islamic jurists) based on Shar'i reason to such an extent that one will not be relieved of the obligation unless he fulfills it. The worship which has "Fard-e-'Amali" will be nullified if it is not observed. Its intentional denial is disobedience, transgression and misguidance.
However, a Mujtahid can differ with it on the ground of any Shar'i reason,argument like the differences of "Aa-imah Mujtahideen" (the great four Imaams) that one Imaam considers a thing "Fard" but the other thinks otherwise. For instance, one-fourth "Masah" (passing wet fingers over the head) of the head during ablution is obligatory (Fard) according to Hanafi creed, of one hair is enough for Shaafa'ees and of the entire head as per Maaliki tenets. Every believer (Muqallid) must follow his Imaam's Mazhab in "Fard-e-'Amali". To do against the teachings of one's Imaam, unless permitted by the Shariah, is not lawful.
Q 4. How many kinds of "Fard-e-'Amali" are there?
A. Fard-e-'Amali are of two kinds i.e. "Fard-e-'Ain" (strict obligation) and "Fard-e-Kifaayah" (an obligation which will be fulfilled even if performed by a few Muslims).
Fard-e-'Ain is the duty which ought to be performed by every sane matured Muslim like prayer five times a day.
Fard-e-Kifaayah is a general duty of believers whose performance by only some Muslims will absolve all and if not performed by even a single believer then all will be held responsible for the sin like washing the dead and funeral prayer.
Q 5. How many kinds of "Waajib" are there?
A. "Waajib" are of two kinds like "Fard" i.e. "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi" and "Waajib-e-'Amali". Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi is that injunction of Shariah whose essentiality is proved by "Daleel-e-Zanni" (a tradition reliably transmitted by one or a few people). "Fard-e-'Amali" and "Waajib-e-'Amali" are its two kinds. Waajib-e-'Amali is that injunction of Shariah (or "Waajib-e-E'tiqaadi) whose non-fulfilment will not cause believers sin. But its essentiality is stressed. If Waajib-e-'Amali is missed in worship in which its observance was essential then the worship will be defective but fulfilled.
However, leaving out any Waajib intentionally once is minor sin and more than one (repeating it a few times) is major sin.
Q 6. How many kinds of Sunnah are there?
A. There are two kinds of Sunnah i.e. "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Huda" (regular, emphasised practice of the Holy Prophet) and "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" which is also called "Sunan-ul-Zawaa-id" and also "Mustahab" and "Mandoob" (irregular,non-emphasised but praiseworthy practice).
Q 7. What is "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is the injunction of Shariah which was regularly fulfilled by the Holy Prophet but was occasionally missed so that it might not become "Fard" (obligatory) for his Ummah or that act which has been emphasised upon by the Shariah.
Q 8. What about he who ignores "Sunnat-e-Muakkadah"?
A. The believer who fulfills Sunnat-e-Muakkadah will earn reward but in case he abandons it without any cogent reason, deserves condemnation. It is sinful to develop an habit of its abandonment which will render him "Faasiq" (disobedient,transgressor) and he will also deserve the torment of hell though its sin is less than that of abandoning "Waajib". Evidence of such man is unacceptable. Some Mulsims scholars maintain that the abandonment of Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is near to "Haraam"(unlawful) act and its "Taarik" (abstainer) might be (God forbid) deprived of the intercession of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) is reported to have said: the one who abandons my Sunnah will not enjoy my "Shafaa'at (intercession).
Q9. What is "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" and what injunction is there to this effect?
A. "Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah" is that injunction of Shariah which has not been emphasised upon but ignoring it is an undesirable act. However, no chastisement has been specified to this effect. Fulfilment of Sunnat-e-Ghair-Muakkadah will earn believer reward whereas its habitual abandonment invites Divine anger.
Q10. What is "Mustahab"?
A. "Mustahab" is that injunction of Shariah whose fulfilment is commendable,desirable in Shariah whether it was practised by the Holy Prophet himself or believers were motivated to do it or the Muslim scholars liked it even though it is not proved by "Ahaadees".
It is rewarding to fulfill "Mustahab" but no offence if not done.
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