Volume - III / CHAPTER - 1 / LESSON NO: 6
THE PROPHET'S COMPANIONS
Q 1: Who is called "Sahaabee"?
A. The one who saw the Holy Prophet in the state of Islaamic faith and also died as believer, is called "Sahaabee" (companion of the Holy Prophet). Muhaajirs and Ansaars are also among the Prophet's companions.
Q 2: Which companions are Muhaajirs?
A. Muhaajir companions (Sahaabee pl:Sahaabah) are those who left their homes and hearth for the sake of Allah and His Messenger Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) and migrated to holy Madinah.
Q 3: Which companions are "Ansaar"?
A. The companion (permanent residents of Madinah) who welcomed and helped the Holy Prophet and his Mohaajir companions in Madinah are called Ansaar.
Q 4: What beliefs should we have about Sahaabah (companions)?
A. All companions of the Holy Prophet are devoted servants and staunch lovers of Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) and we must speak good of them with due respect. What the Holy Qur-aan and Holy Prophet say about them is that they all would be admitted into paradise and would have all their desires fulfilled. The angels would welcome them in heavens. The dread of the Doomsday and hell would not touch them. A saint even of the highest rank is no match for any Sahaabi.
He who scoffs at or harbours malice for any Sahaabi is a disbeliever and deserves to be consigned to hell.
Q 5: Which Sahaabah are superior?
A. Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) is superior to all mankind excepting Apostles, Messengers and Prophets. Next to him are Hadrat 'Umar-e-Farooq (may Allah be pleased with him), Hadrat 'Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with him) and Hadrat 'Alee (may Allah be pleased with him) respectively, superior to all mankind. Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) was elected the first "Khalifah" (Caliph) after (apparent) passing away of the Holy Prophet.
Q 6: What does "Khalifah" mean?
A. The one who runs and conducts all religious and temporal affairs of Muslims in consonance with the teachings of Qur-aan and Sunnah and whose rightful orders are to be followed by Muslims, is called "Khalifa-e-Rasool" (vicegerent of the Holy Prophet).
Q 7: Who was the first Caliph after the Holy Prophet?
A. Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him) was elected the first "Caliph of the faithfuls" with the harmonious concensus of all Muslims. Therefore, he is called "Khalifa-e-Rasool". After him, Hadrat 'Umar-e-Farooq (may Allah be pleased with him) was elected the second Caliph of the faithfuls.
Hadrat 'Usman-e-Ghani (may Allah be pleased with him) was elected the third Caliph of the faithfuls after Hadrat 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was martyred.
Hadrat 'Alee (may Allah be pleased with him) succeeded Hadrat 'Usman (may Allah be pleased with him) and became the fourth Caliph of the faithfuls. After him, his eldest son Hadrat Imaam Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him) was Caliph for only six months.
These devout personages are called "Khulfaa-e-Raashideen" (the true Caliphs of the faithfuls) and their aggregate period of Caliphate is called "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah" (the true Caliphate), as they acquitted well with the heavy responsibility of being the vicegerent of the Holy Prophet.
Q 8: Who are superior after Khulfaa-e-Raashideen?
A. After the four true Caliphs, Hadrat Talaha, Hadrat Zubair, Hadrat Abdul Rehmaan bin Auf, Hadrat Sa'ad bin Waqas, Hadrat Saeed bin Zaid and Hadrat Abu Obeidah bin Jarrah (may Allah be pleased with them all) respectively are superior to other faithfuls.
Q 9: Which companions are "Ashrah Mubash-Sharah"?
A. The above-mentioned six companions of the Holy Prophet and four true Caliphs are "Ashrah Mubash-Sharah i.e. those ten companions who were graced with the salvation and given glad tidings of paradise even in their lifetime. All these ten pious personages are undoubtedly the inhabitants of paradise.
Q10: Which other companions besides the afore-mentioned ones, are certain to be entered into paradise?
A. Besides the afore-mentioned ten companions, the following ones were also given the glad tidings of being admitted into paradise? Ummul Mu'mineen Hadrat Khadija-tul-Kubra and Ummul Mu'mineen Hadrat Aisha Siddiqa (pious wives of the Holy Prophet and revered mothers of the faithfuls), Hadrat Faatemah (beloved daughter of the Holy Prophet) and her two sons Hadrat Imaam Hasan and Imaam Husain, two paternal uncles of the Holy Prophet - Hadrat Hamzah and Hadrat Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with them all) and As-haab-e-Badr (those companions who participated in the battle of Badr) and As-haab-e-Baie'at Ridwaan" (those companions who reaffirmed their allegiance to [the blessed hands of] the Holy Prophet at the place of Ridwaan to fight against infidels and disbelievers). All these companions are also the certain inhabitants of paradise.
Q11: Who is Ameer Mu'aawi-yah?
A. Hadrat Ameer Mu'aawi-yah (may Allah be pleased with him) is also a companion of the Holy Prophet. He was the first king in the history of Islamic kingdom. However, he was king as a companion of Hadrat Muhammad Mustafa (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him). Hadrat Imaam Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him) had surrendered his caliphate to him and had also taken oath of allegiance to him. To speak ill of him or his father Hadrat Abu Suf-yaan or his mother Hadrat Hindah is an extreme insolence and amounts to hurting the Holy Prophet because they are all "Sahaabi".
Q12: How long did the "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah" last?
A. According to a saying of the Holy Prophet the Khilaafat-e-Raashidah lasted for 30 years that ended on the completion of six months' Caliphate of Hadrat Imaam Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him). Later, Hadrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz (may Allah be pleased with him) was Caliph. In the last time (towards the end of the world) Hadrat Saiey-yidinaa Imaam Mehdi (may Allah be pleased with him) will be Caliph whose Caliphate will also be "Khilaafat-e-Raashidah".
Q13: Who are called "Taaba'een"?
A. Taaba'een are those believers who enjoyed the company of the companions of the Holy Prophet and those believers who had the company of Taaba'een are called Taba Taaba'een. Taaba'een (Successors to the Holy Prophet's Companions) are superior to all other Muslims save "Sahaabah", and "Taba Taaba'een" (Successors to the Companions' Successors) rank next to them.