Volume - V / CHAPTER - 2 / LESSON NO: 9
ABOUT "SAJDATUS SAHV"
Q 1: What is "Sajdatus Sahv?
A. To rectify shortcoming(s) caused in prayer by leaving out any of "Waajibaat" (essential acts) Shari'ah has fixed two "Sujood" (pl.of Sajdah) to right the prayer. These two prostrations are called "Sajdatus Sahv" (prostration for forgetfulness, inattention). However, Sajdatus Sahv will not correct the prayer if any Waajib is left out intentionally. It will have to be repeated.
Q 2: When does Sajdatus Sahv become Waajib?
A. Sajdatus Sahv becomes Waajib when any essential act of prayer is left out unintentionally or any Waajib is delayed or any "Rukn" (obligatory act) is preceded or delayed or repeated or any Waajib is changed. Only one Sajdatus Sahv (two prostrations) will be enough to right prayer if a few essential acts are left out in a prayer.
Q 3: Will Sajdatus Sahv be made if any obligatory act or Sunnat is left out in prayer?
A. Prayer will be nullified i.e. will be deemed to have not been offered if any obligatory act is left out. Sajdatus Sahv will not rectify the prayer but it will have to be repeated. However, prayer will be in order in case "Sunan" and "Mustahbaat" like Ta'wuz, Tasmiyah, Aameen, Takbiraat-e-Intiqaal, Tasbihaat-e-Intiqaal, Tasbihaat-e-Rukoo and Sujood are left out intentionally or unintentionally. No need to observe Sajdatus Sahv whether the said act(s) are left out intentionally or unintentionally. But it is commendable to repeat the prayer.
Q 4: What is the method of doing Sajdatus Sahv?
A. The method of observing Sajdatus Sahv is that one should, after having recited "Attahiyaat" (Tashah-hud) in Qa'adah Akheera, say "Salaam" turning the face to the right side and then do Sajdah reciting Takbir; recite Tasbih in Sajdah and then raise the head saying "Allah-o-Akbar"; observe Jalsah and then do the other Sajdah similarly; raise the head from the Sajdah and sit for Qa'adah in which he should recite Tashah-hud, Durood Shareef etc. and then say Salaam to the both sides as usual. It is Waajib to recite Attahiyaat after Sajdatus Sahv and it is better to recite Durood Shareef and Du'aa in both the Qa'adahs. It is also optional to recite Attahiyaat, Durood Shareef and Du'aa in the first Qa'adah and only Attahiyaat in the second.
Q 5: Is Sajdatus Sahv essential in obligatory prayers only or in every prayer?
A. The order for the observance of Sajdatus Sahv in Fard and Nafl prayers is the same i.e. Sajdatus Sahv will be done if any Waajib is left out in Nafl prayer.
Q 6: Which omissions or commissions in recitation of the Holy Quran make Sajdatus Sahv essential?
A. Sajdatus Sahv becomes Waajib in these conditions: one omits Surah Faateha or any verse of it or recites it again instead of any other Surah or forgets to recite other Surah after Surah Faateha or recites any Surah before Surah Faateha or went into Rukoo having recited one or two small verses after Surah Faateha and returned on realising his error and then observed Rukoo after having recited three verses in any of the first two Rakahs of Fard prayer or in both or in any Rakah of Witr, Sunnat and Nafl prayers.
Q 7: Will Sajdatus Sahv be done in case any of "Ta'deel-e-Arkaan" is left out inadvertently or not?
A. Since stay in "Ta'deel-e-Arkaan" i.e. Rukoo, Sujood, Qaumah and Jalsa for such a time that one could say "Subhaan Allah" at least once is Waajib. Sajdatus Sahv. will be done in case any of Ta'deel-e-Arkaan is left out.
Q 8: What injunction is there if one forgets to observe "Qa'adah Ulaa"?
A. The one who forgets to observe Qa'adah Ulaa in Fard prayer should return if has not yet stood upright and complete the prayer without Sajdatus Sahv and if he has stood erect then should not return and complete the prayer with Sajdatus Sahv in the end. And in case, one stands up and then returns, he should observe Sajdatus Sahv at the end of the prayer. This prayer will be in order but it is sinful to do so. That's why an injunction to this effect says that the one who returns after having stood erect should again stand up.
Q 9: What injunction is there in case Qa'adah Akheera is left out inadvertently?
A. The one who forgets to observe Qa'adah Akheera should return before the performance of Sajdah of this (extra) Rak'at and complete the prayer with Sajdatus Sahv and in case of doing Sajdah, Fard prayer went out of order as soon as he raised the head from Sajdah and the prayer is automatically turned into Nafl. Now he may, if wants to, add one more Rak'at to the prayer, barring Maghrib, in order to avoid odd number of Rak'ats and to make pairs of Nafl. There is no need to add one more Rak'at to Maghrib prayer in the given situation as four Rak'ats are complete.
And in case, one stands up after having observed Qa'adah Akheera to the extent of Tashah-hud then he should return before doing Sajdah and complete the prayer with Sajdatus Sahv. This prayer will be in order.
Q10: What injunction is there if Qa'adah Ulaa of Nafl prayer is left out?
A. Since every Qa'adah of Nafl prayer is Qa'adah Akheera i.e. obligatory, therefore, if one forgets to observe Qa'adah and stands erect then he should return before the performance of Sajdah and complete the prayer with Sajdatus Sahv.
As for Waajib prayer, for example, Witr which is within the purview of Fard, the injunction to this effect (if one forgets to observe Qa'adah Ulaa) is the same as is for the obligatory prayer.
Q11: What injunction is there about recitation of Durood Shareef after Tashah-hud in Qa'adah Ulaa?
A. Sajdatus Sahv becomes Waajib if one recites Durood Shareef to the extent of " Allahumma Salle 'Alaa Muhammad" after Tashah-hud in Qa'adah Ulaa. Sajdatus Sahv does not become Waajib on account of reciting Durood Shareef but on the ground that Qiyaam of third Rak'at is delayed. So Sajdatus Sahv will also have to be observed if one remains silent to the extent of the said span. Even, recitation from the holy Quran in Qa'adah, Rukoo and Sujood makes Sajdatus Sahv essential (Waajib) irrespective of the fact that it is "Kalaam Allah" (speech,word of Allah). Once the Holy Prophet Saiey-yidinaa Muhammad (may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) graced Imaam 'Azam Abu Hanifah (may Allah be pleased with him) with his vision and asked as to why did he make Sajdatus Sahv essential for the reciter of Durood Shareef? He submitted "because he recited it forgetfully. The Holy Prophet appreciated the reply.
Q12: In which other conditions does Sajdatus Sahv become Waajib?
A. Sajdatus Sahv becomes Waajib if any word or part of Tashah-hud in Qa'adah is left out or Tashah-hud is recited in Qiyaam of the first two Rak'ats after Surah Faateha or Tashah-hud is repeated a number of time in Qa'adah Ulaa or one forgot to recite Tashah-hud or recited Surah Faateha in lieu of Tashah-hud or observed Sajdah in place of Rukoo or performed Rukoo instead of Sajdah or repeated such a Rukn in prayer that must not be repeated or any-Rukn is preceded or withheld or one forgot to recite Duaa-e-Qunoot or Takbeer-e-Qunoot (Takbeer which is uttered before reciting Duaa-e-Qunoot) or Imaam made Qiraa-at silently to the extent of one verse in Salaatul Jahar or did Qiraa-at loudly in "Salaatul Sirr" or paused to select Qiraa-at on any occasion to the extent of one Rukn i.e. for such a while during which Subhaan Allah could be recited three times. In all these conditions Sajdatus Sahv is Waajib.
Q13: Does Sajdatus Sahv become Waajib for Muqtadi in case Imaam commits any "Sahv"?
A. Muqtadi must follow Imaam in observing Sajdatus Sahv, if he does it for any "Sahv" (mistake, omission) even though he (Muqtadi) joined Jama'at after the Sahv. However, Muqtadi will not perform Sajdatus Sahv in case he himself commits any Sahv in Jama'at i.e. under the discipline of Imaam. Even no need to repeat the prayer.
Q14: Should Sajdatus Sahv be observed if any Sahv is committed in Eid prayer or not?
A. It is better not to observe Sajdatus Sahv for any omission,mistake in Eid and Jumu'ah prayers if there are large number of Muqtadis.
Q15: Should "Masbooq" observe Sajdatus Sahv with Imaam or not?
A. "Masbooq" (the one who joins Jama'at after some Rakahs) should observe Sajdatus Sahv with Imaam even though he joined Jama'at after Sahv of the Imaam and in case he does not do so and stands up to complete his remaining prayer then he should perform Sajdatus Sahv in the end. This Sajdatus Sahv will also rectify his own Sahv if committed in his remaining prayer besides the Imaam's Sahv. And in case, he observed Sajdatus Sahv with the Imaam and any Sahv is committed by him in his prayer then he should perform Sajdatus Sahv for that too.
Likewise, a resident who offers prayer under the leadership of a traveller should observe Sajdatus Sahv with the Imaam if he commits any Sahv and performs Sajdatus Sahv and then complete the rest of his prayer. In this too he should do Sajdatus Sahv if commits Sahv.
Q16: Is Sajdatus Sahv essential for omitting any other Waajib than the Waajib of prayer?
A. Sajdatus Sahv is not essential for omission of a Waajib which does not belong to Waajibaat of prayer. For example, recitation of Quranic chapters in serial order is one of the Waajibaat of Qiraa-at not of prayer. Hence, recitation of Quranic chapters in non-serial order in prayer will not make Sajdatus Sahv essential.
Q17: Is Sajdatus Sahv essential in case of doubt or not?
A. Sajdatus Sahv is Waajib in every type of doubt. However, it is not essential in "Ghalba-e-Zann" (strong presumption). But one will have to observe it in case he takes time, to the extent of a Rukn, to think over.
Q18: What should one do who owes Sajdatus Sahv but forgets to observe it?
A. The one who owed Sajdatus Sahv but forgot to observe it and said "Salaam" on both sides, should immediately do it on remembrance provided that he did not do such an act that is against the sanctity of prayer. If he does not do so, he is out of prayer since the very time he said "Salaam". And in case, he knew his "Sahv" and said Salaam deliberately, then he is out of prayer. Now he can not observe Sajdatus Sahv but must repeat the prayer.