Volume - V / CHAPTER - 2 / LESSON NO: 13
OF "JUMU'AH' PRAYER
Q1: Is "Jumu'ah" prayer "Fard-e-'Aien" or "Fard-e-Kifaayah"?
A. "Jumu'ah" prayer is "Fard-e-'Aien" (strict obligation) and it is more "Moakkad" (emphasised) than "Zuhr" prayer. A Hadees in this connection says: Allah Almighty sets a seal on the heart of he who omits prayer of three consecutive Jumu'ahs due to lethargy. Another tradition says: He is "Munaafiq" and has no concern with Allah. Since it is proved by undeniable and unquestionable arguments that Jumu'ah prayer is obligatory, therefore, its denier is infidel.
Q 2: How many conditions are there for Jumu'ah prayer?
A. There are six conditions for Jumu'ah prayer. If even one of the conditions is not met, Jumu'ah prayer will not be accomplished.
1. Jumu'ah prayer must be held either in city, town or a big village which has streets and markets. It should be either district or sub-division having a representative of the government to do justice to the oppressed and punish the oppressor. Similarly, Jumu'ah prayer can be offered in the adjoining areas of the city where graveyard, cantonment, courts and bus and railway stations are
situated. Jumu'ah prayer is not lawful in small villages. People living in villages adjacent to city should go there to offer Jumu'ah prayer.
2. The ruler of Muslim country or his vicegerent should establish Jumu'ah prayer himself and also decree to establish it and in non-Muslim state the chief "Faqih" (Muslim jurist) who must be a Sunni Muslim with correct beliefs, should establish Jumu'ah as he acts for a Muslim ruler in non-Muslim state to enforce "Shar'ee" commands or Muslims may elect any believer as Imaam to establish Jumu'ah. It is made clear here that in the presence of an "Aalim" (religious scholar) people can not authorise somebody to lead prayer themselves nor a few persons can select someone for the purpose.
3. Jumu'ah prayer ought to be completed within the stipulated time of Zuhr prayer i.e. it should not be started so late that the time of Asr prayer comes in during the course of Jumu'ah prayer or even after recitation of "Tashah-hud". In this condition, the Jumu'ah prayer will become null and void. Qadaa of Zuhr prayer will have to be offered in lieu thereof.
4. Sermon of Jumu'ah must be delivered within the time and prior to Jumu'ah prayer and before such gathering that is essential for Jumu'ah. It should, if there is no hindrance or problem, be delivered so loudly as to be heard by at least those sitting in the front rows. Much gap between sermon and prayer will render the sermon ineffective.
5. Jama'at: there must be at least three men besides Imaam.
6. General permission: main gate of mosque be opened for all believers without any exception.
Q3: What is "Khutbah"?
A. "Khutbah" (sermon) means remembrance of Allah even though "Al-Hamdu Lillah" or "Subhaan Allah" or Laa Ilaaha Illal-Laahu" is recited only once, "Fard" will be fulfilled. But it is "Makrooh" to recite so little. If "Al-Hamdu Lillah" is said on sneeze or "Subhaan Allah" or "Laa Illaha Illal-Laahu" is said on any surprise, in such conditions "Fard" will not be fulfilled.
Q 4: What is the accepted method of sermon?
A. The following things,acts are Sunnat in sermon:
(1). "Khateeb"(the one who delivers sermon) must be clean, (2) be on pulpit,(3) must ascend the pulpit before delivering sermon, (4) must stand facing the gathering, (6) with his back towards the Qiblah, (7) to recite "A'oozu Billaah"(Ta'awuz) before delivering sermon in low voice, (8) to deliver sermon with such loud voice that believers could hear it, (9) to begin with "Al-Hamd", (10) to glorify Allah, (11) to testify the Oneness of Allah Almighty and the Messengership of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah's choicest blessings and peace be upon him), (12) to recite at least one Quranic verse, (13) to invoke Allah's blessings on the Holy Prophet, (14) to preach to and exhort believers in the first sermon and (15) pray for believers and again praise and glorify Allah, testify Allah's Oneness and Messengership of the Holy Prophet in the second sermon, (16) both sermons should be short (not lengthy) and (17) to sit between the two sermons for a while, enough to recite three Quranic verses.
Q 5: Which things, acts are "Mustahab" in sermon?
A. It is Mustahab (commendable) that "Khateeb" should recite second sermon in lower voice than the first and mention of "Khulfa-e-Raashideen" and respected paternal uncles of the Holy Prophet, Hadrat Hamzah and Hadrat Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) be made.
Q 6: Which acts are Sunnat for believers during sermon?
A. The believers who gathered for Jumu'ah prayer must heed the Imaam. Those sitting before Imaam should face him and those sitting on the right side or left should turn their faces towards him. It is better to be close to the Imaam but do not jump over the necks of the believers for the purpose. A Hadees in this context warns: "if anybody jumps over the necks of people on Friday makes a path to hell". However, one can go to the front row(s) if space is there provided that the Imaam has not yet ascended the pulpit. Late comers should sit wherever they find place instead of intruding into front rows.During sermon, believers should sit in the same position as in prayer.
Q 7: Which things,acts are unlawful or forbidden during sermon?
A. All those things,acts which are unlawful during prayer are also unlawful during sermon. For example, to eat, drink, to greet or to respond to greeting etc. It is obligatory upon listeners to keep silence and listen to the sermon attentively. Those sitting at distant place and can not hear Khateeb's voice should also keep silence. It is forbidden to speak to somebody even to offer prayer or recite the Holy Quran or remember Allah right from the time of Khateeb's standing for sermon to the end of Jumu'ah prayer. However, "Saahib-e-Tarteeb"(he who keeps up serial order of his prayers) can offer his missed prayer. Likewise, the one who is offering Sunnat or Nail prayer should complete it as early as possible. It is not permitted to invoke Allah's blessings on the Holy Prophet with the tongue on the mention of his blessed name in sermon but it should be done silently in the heart.
It is also unlawful to forbid someone doing any thing bad with the tongue but by gesture. Khateeb can, however, enjoin virtuous deeds.
Q 8: What time should the second "Azaan" of Jumu'ah be uttered?
A. After the Khateeb has sat on the pulpit, call to prayer should be made again i.e. second Azaan be uttered before him. "Before him" does not mean to be in front of him or adjacent to pulpit as religious scholars forbid calling Azaan in mosque and consider it Makrooh.
The second Azaan should also be called aloud so that those who could not hear the first call to prayer may hear it and come to mosque. Khutbah should immediately be followed by Iqaamah. It is Makrooh to talk about worldly matters between Khutbah and Iqaamah.
Q 9: What should believers do after the first Azaan of Jumu'ah?
A. Sale and shopping become unlawful after the first Azaan is made which include all worldly affairs and business preventing believers from Jumu'ah prayer. All these things must be abandoned immediately after the first call to prayer is uttered and preparation for the prayer be made. Sale or shopping done even on way to mosque is unlawful what to talk of doing such things in mosque which is greatly sinful.
It is Mustahab to go to mosque before time, apply "Miswaak" (tooth stick) to the teeth, put on white cloths, apply oil and perfume and to sit in the first row. To take bath is Sunnat.
Q10: How many conditions are there for Jumu'ah's being "Waajib"
A. There are eleven conditions for the essentiality of Jumu'ah. Absecne of even a single condition will obviate the obligation. However, prayer will be accomplished if offered.
(1). Believer must be resident, (2) healthy. Jumu'ah prayer is not obligatory upon such a sick who can not go to mosque or his condition further worsens or if he is certain that it will delay recovery, (3) free, (4) male, (5) mature, (6) sane. Maturity and sanity are not conditional for only Jumu'ah but also for every kind of worship, (7) having eye-sight. Jumu'ah prayer is not obligatory on blind. But it is obligatory upon that blind who is present in mosque having ablution at the time of Azaan. Likewise, Jumu'ah prayer is also obligatory on those blinds who freely move on roads and in markets without other's help, (8) one who is able to walk. Jumu'ah is not obligatory upon handicapped, (9) not to be prisoner, (10) be free from fear of ruler or thief or any tyrant and (11) it is not raining or hailing or there is wind or cold to such an extent that it may harm.
Q11: Can those offer Zuhr prayer in congregation upon whom Jumu'ah is not obligatory or not?
A. It is Makrooh Tahreemi for those upon whom Jumu'ah prayer is not obligatory to offer Zuhr prayer in Jama'at (congregation) irrespective of before or after Jumu'ah prayer. Similarly, those who either missed or could not find Jumu'ah prayer, must offer Zuhr prayer individually. However, Zuhr prayer in villages should be offered in congregation on Friday with usual Azaan and Iqaamah.
Q12: Is it lawful or not to deliver sermon in Urdu?
A. It is against the perennial Sunnat and an ancient way of Muslims to deliver sermon either in other language than Arabic or to mingle any language with Arabic. During the days of the Holy Prophet's companions many cities and states were conquered and thousands of mosques were constructed but there is no report that any companion delivered sermon in the languages of the local inhabitants and even the Holy Prophet did not do but delivered sermons in Arabic to Roman, African and other non-Arab delegations who called on him notwithstanding the fact the delegates did not know even a word of Arabic.
As for the objection "then what is the use of preaching and precept?" Actually it rebounds on the objectors in the backdrop of learning English or any other language for the sake of employment or other worldly gains but unfortunately do not endeavour to learn Arabic - the language of our Prophet, of the Glorious Qur-aan and of the Paradise, even to such an extent that they could understand "Khutbah".