Volume - III / CHAPTER - 2 / LESSON NO: 20
ESSENTIAL, SUNNAT & COMMENDABLE ACTS OF PRAYER?
Q 1: What does "Wajibaat" of prayer mean?
A. Wajibaat is plural of Wajib (essential act). Essential acts of prayer have to be observed necessarily. Sajdah Sahv (prostration for forgetfulness) will make up for any Wajib left out by mistake. However, prayer will have to be repeated in case one does not observe Sajdah Sahv despite having left out any Wajib by mistake or leaves any Wajib deliberately.
Q 2: How many Wajibaat are there in prayer?
A. There are twenty-six essential acts of prayer:
1. To say "Allah-o-Akbar" in Takbeer-e-Tahreema.
2. To recite Al-Hamd Sharif i.e.Surah Faatehah.
3. To recite one small Surah (Qur-aanic chapter) or one big Qur-aanic verse or three small verses after Surah Faateha in the first two Rakahs of Fard prayer and in every Rakah of Wajib, Sunnat and Nafil prayers.
4. To determine the first two Rakahs of Fard prayer for Qiraa-at.
5. To recite Al-Hamd Shareef before any Surah.
6. To observe Rukoo immediately after completing Qiraa-at.
7. To follow the first Sajdah by the second Sajdah i.e. to make two prostrations in succession.
8. To stay in Rukoo, Sujood, Qaumah, Qa'adah (pi. Qu'ood) and Jalsah for a span in which one could say Subhaan Allah with ease.
9. To stand erect in Qaumah (after performance of Rukoo).
10. To sit in "Jalsah" (between two prostrations).
11. To sit in "Qa'ada-e-Ulaa" (first sitting posture) in three and four Rakahs' prayer (irrespective of Nafil) for such a time that one could recite Tashah'hud.
12. To recite complete Tashah-hud in both the Qu'ood (Qa'ada-e-Ulaa and Qa'ada-e-Akheerah).
13. To say "Assalaam-o-Alaiekum wa Rahmatul Laah" twice.
14. To recite Du'aa-e-Qunoot and say Takbeer-e-Qunoot in Witr prayer.
15. To utter six Takbeers of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha (Azha) respectively (three at the outset of prayer and the remaining three in the second Rakah before going into Rukoo) in the words of "Allah-o-Akbar".
16. Aloud recitation from the Holy Qur-aan (Qiraa-at) by Imaam in Salaat-ul-Jahr i.e. Fajr, Maghrib, Isha, Jumu'ah, both Eid prayers and Taraawih and Witr prayers in Ramadaan and Qiraa-at in low voice by Imaam in Salaat-ul-Sirr i.e. Zuhr and Asr prayers.
17. Muqtadi should follow Imaam silently in Jama'at i.e. not to do Qiraa-at.
18. To follow Imaam in all Wajibat (essential acts) except the Qiraa-at.
19. To observe Sajdah on reciting the verse of prostration.
20. To observe Sajdah Sahv on any "Sahv" (omission, forgetfulness) in prayer.
21. To observe every Wajib and Fard at their respective appointed places.
22. To observe Rukoo only once in every Rakah.
23. To observe two Sujood (prostrations) in every Rakah.
24. To recite nothing after recitation of Tashah'hud in Qa'ada-e-Ulaa of Fard, Witr and Sunnat-e-Muakkadah prayers.
25. Not to observe Qa'adah before completing two Rakahs and not to observe Qa'adah after third Rakah in four Rakahs' prayer.
26. Not to delay the observance of "Faraid" (obligatory acts) and Wajibaat (essential acts) in succession for a span in which one could recite Tasbih (Subhaan Allah) thrice.
Q 3: What does Sunan-us-Salaat mean?
A. Sunan is plural of Sunnah. Sunan-us-Salaat means those things and acts which were practised by the Holy Prophet(may Allah's choicest blessings & peace be upon him) in prayer. Their importance is not like that of Fard and Wajib. Therefore, Sajdah Sahv is not observed if any Sunnah is left out by mistake. However to leave any Sunnat act deliberately is very bad and to treat it with contempt is a worst sin nay infidelity.
Q 4: How many Sunan are there in prayer?
A. There are thirty Sunan in prayer:
(1). To raise the hands for Takbeer-e-Tahreema. (2). To keep the fingers of the hands in their natural condition i.e. open and the palms must face the Qiblahh.(3). Not to lower the head while saying Takbeer. (4). To utter Takbeer before raising the hands. Similarly recite Takbeer-e-Qunoot and Takbeers in Eids' prayers after having lifted the hands upto the ears. It is no Sunnah to raise hands on any occasion in prayer besides these ones. (5).Aloud utterance of "Al-Laahu Akbar", "Sami Allahu Liman Hamidah", Salaam and other Takbeers by Imaam. (6). To fold the hands below the navel immediately after saying Takbeer.(7). To recite Sana i.e. Subhaana-kallaa-humma.... (8). To recite Ta'awuz i.e. Aa'oozu-Billahi.... (9)To say "Aameen" at the end of Surah Faatehah. (10).To utter all these glorifications in low voice. (11). To recite only Surah Faatehah in the second two Rakahs of Fard prayer. (12). To say Allah-o-Akbar while going into Rukoo. (13).To utter Subhaana Rabbi-yal Azeem at least thrice in Rukoo. (14). To hold fast to the knees with the fingers well-spread thereon in Rukoo. (15). While rising from Rukoo, Imaam should say Tasmee i.e. Sami Allahu- liman-Hamida and Muqtadi(follower) should say Tahmeed i.e. Rabbanaa-Lakal-Hamd. Individual (he who offers prayer by himself) should say both Tasmee and Tahmeed. (16). To keep the head and back at level with each other in Rukoo. (17). To say Allah-o-Akbar while going into Sajdah and rising from it. (18).To place first the knees then the palms of the hands followed by nose and the forehead on the ground while performing Sajdah and to raise first the forehead then the nose followed by the hands and the knees while rising from Sajdah. (19). To recite "Subhaana Rabbi-yal 'Alaa" at least thrice in aloof in prostration. (20). To keep the arms away from the sides, belly aloof from the thighs and elbows off the ground but not to keep the arms apart from the sides in Jama'at (congregation). (21). To sit between two prostrations like that of sitting for "Tashah-hud" i.e. to sit with one's left foot under him and the right foot standing (insides of the toes firmly placed on the ground) and the hands rest on the thighs. (22). To keep the fingers of the hands joined up (pointing towards the Qiblah) and the insides of all the ten toes of the feet firmly placed on the ground facing the Qiblah during prostrations. (23). To sit on the left foot (spreading it on the ground) with the right foot standing on the insides of the toes which should face the Qiblah and keep the hands on the thighs near the knees after having completed two prostrations of the second Rakah.(24).To indicate on the recitation of Kalimah-e-Shahaadat in Qa'adah i.e. to raise the forefinger of the right hand on the word "La" (coupling the middle finger with the thumb and the ring and little fingers are bent towards the palm and lower it on reaching the word "Ilia" and then let all the fingers free to rest on the thigh. (25). To recite Durood Shareef(invocation of Allah's blessings on the Holy Prophet) after having recited Tashah-hud in the second Qa'adah (Qa'ada-e-Akheera). Recitation of Durood Sharif in the first Qa'adah of Nafil prayer is commendable. (26). To make Dua(supplication) in Arabic for oneself, parents, Muslim teachers and for all Muslims after having recited Durood Sharif. (27). To say Salaam turning the face first towards the right side and then to the left. (28). To say "Assalaam-o-Alaiekum wa Rahmatul Laah" twice. (29). To intend "Salaam" for the worshipping believers, Kiraaman Kaati-been and those angels who are posted for one's protection on each side.
Q 5: What are "Mustahbaat" in prayer?
A. Desirable acts which beautify and perfect the performance of Salaat are called "Mustahbaat singular Mustahab" like: (1). To focus the look on the spot of prostration during Qiyaam, on the insteps of the feet during Rukoo, in the lap during Qa'adah and Jalsah, on the point of the nose during prostration and on the shoulders while saying Salaam. (2). To restrain yawning by pressing the lower lip under the upper teeth and even then it is not controlled, put the back of the right hand over the mouth during Qiyaam and in other conditions use the left hand for the purpose. The best way to resist yawning is that the believer should recall in his heart that all the Prophets were "protected" from yawning, it will immediately vanish. (3). Not to cough noisily. (4). Man should take his hands out if wrapped up in sheet of cloth, for Takbeer-e-Tahreema. (5). All Muqtadies (followers) and Imaam should stand for prayer on "Haieyaa 'Alal Falaah". It is against Sunnah to stand for Iqaamah before it is uttered or is not uttered until Imaam reaches his "Musallaa"(the place where from the Imaam leads prayer). (6). To keep the feet four toes apart during Qiyaam. (7). Muqtadi should begin his prayer following the Imaam i.e. should not precede the Imaam.
Q 6: Which things are Sunnat for women in prayer?
A. Ten things are Sunnat for women in prayer: (1). To lift her hands upto the shoulders for Takbeer-e-Tahreema.(2). To keep the hands in sheet of cloth in which she is wrapped-up while uttering Takbeer-e-Tahreema.(3). To place the palm of the left hand on the chest under the breast and put the palm of the right hand on the back of the left's palm.(4).Not to grasp but simply place the hands on the knees without opening up the fingers during Rukoo.(5). To bow only to an such extent that the hands reach the knees in Rukoo. (6). Bend her knees unlike man.(7). To observe Sajdah in close manner i.e. to join the arms with the sides, the belly with the thighs, the thighs with the calves and shins with the ground.(8). To spread out both the hands on the ground during prostration. (9). To sit on the left haunch jutting out her feet to the right side in Qa'adah. (10). To keep the fingers of the hands joined up in Qa'adah and Jalsah.